“Pērļošanas pamati” nobeigums

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Pēc ieilgušas pauzes, turpinu rakstu par pērļu vēsturi. Laikam ritot čehu meistari iemācījās izgatavot stiklu, kurš pēc sava dzidruma, spīduma un cietības pārspēja visus iepriekš radītos stiklus. Pirmā stikla karsēšanas krāsns tika iekurta 1376 g. Ciemā Sklenaržica, netālu no Jablonca. Pilsētā Mšeno-nad-Nisoj 1548 gadā tika atklāta pirmā stikla rūpnīca. Bohēmijas stikla meistari radīja savu tehnoloģiju, tie stikla satāvā sodas vietā ielika koksnes pelnus – potašu. No tā arī aizsākās nosaukums „meža stikls”. Tas ir cietāks, vieglāk padodas apstrādei un slīpēšanai. Īpaši pieprasītas čehu pērles kļuva XVII gadsimta beigās un XVIII sāk. Populārākās bija pērles, kuras pārklātas ar dažādām krāsainām emaljām, slīpējumiem, tā bija lielākā atšķirība no venēciešu pērlām.

Pateicoties nepārtrauktai sacensībai ar venēciešu stikla meistariem,čehu meistari nepārtraukti pilnveidoja savu ražotni, un tā XIX gs. piedzīvoja čehu pērļu ražošanas uzplaukumu. Čehu sīkpērles sasniedza dažādu izmēru, krāsu un pustoņu daudzveidību.XIX gadsimtā tika izgudrota pērļu ražošanas mašīna, pateicoties tam ievērojami samazinājās pērlīšu pašizmaksa. Samazinoties pieprasījumam no ražošanas sāka izzust sīkās pērlītes, samazinājās krāsu toņi. Pērles kļuva arvien rupjākas.

Jauns pērļu ražošanas etaps aizsākās Japānā. 1949. Gadā tika izveidota kompānija Miyuki, bet 1957.gadāa parādījās kompānija TOHO. Abi ražotāji ražoja augstākās kvalitātes pērlītes, pastāvīgi papildināja asortimentu ar jaunām formām un toņiem. Kompānija Miyuki 1982 gadā radīja pilnīgi jaunas cilindriskas pērles, kuras nodēvēja par Delica. TOHO neatpaliek no sava konkurenta, viņi ražošanas līnijās arī ir cilindriskas pērles ar nosaukumu Treasures. Nepārtraukta kvalitātes kontrole ļauj japāņiem ražot īpaši precīzas pērles, kuras pārklātas arīpaši noturīgu krāsu.

TOHO 2000 gadā palaida jaunu pērļu ražošanas līniju Aiko. To var saukt par visprecīzāko pērli pasaulē. Papildus klasiskās formas pērlītēm un stienīšiem, japāņi ražo trijstūra, lāses veida, seštūra, kubiskas un magatamas pērles. Starp japānu ražōtājiem ir vēl viena ievērības cienīga kompānija Matsuno, tomēr pēc kvalitātes tā atpaliek no TOHO un Miyuki. Šie divi brendi ir vieni no vadošajiem līderiem pasaulē. Tas bija neliels ieskats pērļu attīstības vēsturē.

Citi raksti no sērijas “Pērļošanas pamati”:

  1. Pērļošanas pamati. 1. daļa
  2. “pērļošanas pamati” turpinājums, 2. daļa
  3. Pērļošanas pamati 3. daļa
  4. Pērļošanas pamati nobeigums

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